Copyright: ARASMIN 2012-2013
PROBLEMS AND VIOLENCES: The present situation of the poor Tribal life is so precarious and so sorrowful that  cannot be expressed in words. Hence, it will never be incorrect to pronounce the  words CURSE and DISGRACE in the life situation of the poor Tribal people residing  in this Tribal belt and struggling for their existence.  Indeed, the violence seen in this Tribal belt are paradoxical by nature and illustrates  a clear vision on the social portrait of the present society. It is divided into three  categories, such as: Physical violence, Subtle violence and Systemic violence. We  have experienced all type of violence in our area of operation and our interferences  to all those situations have focused on the people to some extent. Actually, the  interferences of the outsiders and other exterminatory groups has put them into an  endangered situation. Though the people do not dare to re-act with the situation,  they feel what type of suppressions and oppressions are taking place in their  society. They have felt that the Exploitation is the most dangerous and detrimental  violence that causes their lively-hood “cursed” and make them proletarian. Some of  the prominent and bright examples of Exploitation and vital issues relating to the  violence are displayed here under:   SOCIAL: If, we go through the leaves of the primitive history, we will find that, all the poor  Tribal people were residing very happily. But in course of time, their fortune did not  favour them and the misfortune invited their misery and they became the social  victims of severe exploitations and sheer deceits of the Kings, Zamindars, and their  successor bureaucrats. Moreover, just after Independence, observing the healthy  situation of the Tribal belt, some outside Businessmen and Money Lenders with an  intension to take the best advantages of their business entered the tribal belt  having a micro-policy.  Initially, these exterminatory groups established friendship  and relationship with the hilly-dwelling innocent people and started their Business.  By means of their micro-policy the Invader groups gradually exploited the people of  this Tribal area and looted their Forest produces, Agricultural produces, cooking  utensils, silver ornaments, Gold ornaments, Animal Resources and finally hi-jacked  their cultivable lands. The interventions and the interruptions of the exterminatory  groups made the innocent people proletarians and bended their social backbones.  In present position, they are also being exploited by the Government Officers,  Political persons and Contractors.  ECONOMICAL: The socio-economical statistical survey at random reveals that more than 90 %  people stay below the poverty line. Majority of them are either landless Agricultural  labourers or forest produce depending survivors. So, the economical balance in the  society is always immeasurable and the financial crisis is the hour of the day. The  more strange is that even in this scientific age people in lean season live on roots  and leaves of the forest. The root cause of this poverty and hunger is told to be the  severe exploitations which have bended the backbone of these hilly-dwellers in  such a manner that they are unable to get hold of a twinge for their survival and up-  liftment. The natural calamities are another factor which unexpectedly hit the  people and create a barrier on their improvement. Hence, problems being multiplied  to numerous have weakened the backbone of these people.      EDUCATIONAL: The Education as a whole has not rendered its services to the poor innocent people  of this Tribal predominated belt. The Literacy rate in total is only 27.3 % where as  the women literacy alone is 8.5 % only. The ratio is not in support of the statement  because of the Social, Economical and Cultural drawbacks of the people. Hence,  encouraging the people and the new generations on Education is the hour of the  day. HEALTH HAZARDS:   Due to the deceiving rainfall the climatic condition of this area remains cold  constantly and the atmosphere maintains sub-normal temperature which invites the  Health hazards and creates misery and misfortune for these hilly-dwelling  inhabitants. Some people seem to be affected with disease and some people having  emaciated body coat seem to be affected with draught and famine. People do not  have the tolerance capacity to very minor diseases. The deteriorating socio-  economic condition of the people does not permit them to take worthy nutritional  diets which results into an increasing rate of mortality. Further the poverty stricken  families do not priorities on health needs of the mothers and children which is also  backed by lack of health awareness, defunct Health Care system and lack of  administrative will to change their fate towards the better tomorrow and the vicious  cycle revolves around by simply accepting the on-going situations. Malnutrition,  illiteracy, backwardness and many more community problems are leading towards  the poor health situation of the rural community and ultimately the mothers and  children of the society are the spent victims of the situation. Scarcity of drinking  water is a standing problem that creates obstruction for a healthy life and long  survival. People use the water of “CHUAN” for drinking and cooking purpose,  where the cattle, buffaloes, dogs, jackals and birds are drinking and taking their  bath. Hence, all the people of this area are susceptible to some water-born diseases  and some contagious diseases like Pneumonia, whooping cough, Typhoid, Para-  typhoid, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Dyspepsia, Constipation and peptic ulcer etc.   The fever Malaria takes a fatal course and tortures the people very often.  Sometimes it is converted to Meningitis and invites the death of the patient. This  very area is identified as a Malaria belt. Anemia, Edema, Cancer, Sickle cell,  Neurological diseases and skin diseases are very common in this area. The most  dangerous disease HIV/AIDS is also rarely identified at places. Some hereditary  diseases take fatal course causing the moral turpitude of the poor people.    Scarcity of worthy diets is the main cause of crude-birth, infant mortality and  children morbidity. The survey conducted by the Government of India revels that  the rate of crude-birth is 4.5 % per annum where as the infant mortality is 6.3 %.  Hence, the children are the major sufferer mass. One can easily identify the  children living in this Tribal belt. Moreover, the poor people do not have the  knowledge of taking child care which is the main drawback of the children  morbidity.   The rate of Maternal mortality is very high in this area which comes to 8.5 % per  annum. Not withstanding the fact that the women are the venerable segment of the  society are most neglected unprivileged, poorly treated and significantly suffered  have been seldom taken care by the Health Care initiatives.  Hence, the mother-  hood careers of the women mass have become a curse for their lively-hood. Pre-  natal death, Post-natal death is very prominent. A large number of women die at the  time of their delivery due to delay in decision making, delay at delivery time and  delay at Doctors level. Hence, protection for safe mother-hood life is the hour of the  day. Moreover, the people of this area are far away from Health education and quite  ignorant of preventive measures. They do not care to immunize their children  against different infectious diseases. Blind belief and witch craft are other  regrettable factors adopted by almost all, those invite the abnormal stage of the  disease. Some times the inadequate knowledge in health education causes drug  abuse and ultimately the patients invite their death. The poor category is the most  sufferer category who are struggling enough for their survival and they are unable  to purchase the medicines from the market due to financial crisis.  The Government Officers and the staff of the Health Department are not so serious  to perform their duties sincerely. Sometimes they ignore the people intentionally  with some mollified intention of exploiting nature. The medicines supplied to the  dispensary and health centers are misutilized by them and the preventive measures  are not properly taken-up by them. Traditional treatment and blind belief is another  drawback for the livelihood of the Tribal community. It is only due to lack of  knowledge in Health Care. The infrastructure for the Health Care services is  adequately inadequate. Private consultancy or clinic on Health services does not  exist in this area. So, the   people are deprived of getting effective services on health care for that it will never  be exaggerate to mention that the health care services in this area is absolutely  “NIL”. TRIBAL CULTURE: The Tribal culture plays a descriptive role on the life situation of all the hilly-  dwelling inhabitants because all other communities are also well acquainted with  this tribal culture. Mainly, they worship the Goddess “EARTH” and Goddess  “JUNGLE”. The lively-hood of these hilly-dwelling people is always accelerated by  the tribal culture. A critical analysis and deep penetration in to tribal culture will  prove that it is based upon the primitive science and economy which is far better  than the modern science and modern economy. But, the interventions of the  migrated Money Lenders and Businessmen have polluted their culture by  motivation resulting them to lead an phase-out life. Hence, exploitation in tribal  culture has also taken place.  MATRIMONIAL: As regards to the Matrimony in this Tribal belt, early marriage and inter-caste  marriage is a general issue and which is not treated as a serious offence. Poly-  gamy/multi-marriage system is also allowed by their society. Unwed mother  tradition is yet a standing curse and prevails as a seducer. Instances are there that  some Govt. officers and some contractors working in this area with the aim to fulfill  their sexual appetite trap the unmarried girls. The expectations of the girls to marry  in a higher caste and to merge in a higher society compel them to believe those  traitors and love them.  But, finally, the sheer deceits of those exterminatory  elements make the girls social victims and they remain as unwed mother.  DEPENDANCY ON FOREST:  All the hilly-dwelling poor Tribal communities and other minor communities were  managing their lively-hood depending upon the forest produces. They were  collecting mangoes, jack fruits, mohua flowers, proproots, amla, black-myrobalan,  Belaric-myrobalan, regin, Khalli leaves, siali leaves and fire woods etc., and were  selling in the local market after their  own consumption. But, in present position  their entry to forest area is restricted and banned by legislation as a result of which  they are unable to enjoy the said facilities openly. Moreover, it has become an  opportunity for the officers and personnel of the Department to exploit the poor  people by charging unlawful penalties.  ETHINIC ISSUES: The people belonging to Schedule Caste Community have become the habitual  forceful occupiers of Tribal Land, Stealing the crops, household articles and animal  resources like goats and poultry birds of the people belonging to Schedule Tribe.  Sometimes, they are kidnapping the Tribal girls for marriage purpose and leaving  them after two to three years. Hence, this type of disturbances and violations are  the root cause of Ethnic Issues occurring from time to time.   FOREST ISSUE: The Tribal lively-hood is based upon three basic elements called LAND, FOREST  and TRIBAL CULTURE. Since, time immemorial all the Tribal people have been  depending upon the FOREST for their lively-hood management.  But, the Government of Orissa at present have banned the entry of the people to  forest area by legislation. So, the poor people are deprived up from all natural  resources which are the gift of God for their lively-hood.   Hence, it has become an opportunity for the officers and personnel of the  concerned Department to exploit the people who are entering the Forest for  collection of different Forest Products by means of charging severe penalties both  officially and non-officially. In this endeavour all the poor Tribal people are  struggling for their daily bread.  MIGRATION AND DISPLACEMENT: Migration can be divided into two categories, such as : (i) Natural Migration  (Displacement) and (ii) Artificial Migration. Artificial migration can be defined as a  creative migration.  Natural migration is caused by the people themselves due to scarcity of Foods and  lack of their knowledge on lively-hood management.  So, those people losing their  movable and immovable properties and their own social identification are going on  migration or being displaced gradually. Severe exploitation may be vital cause of  this migration.  But, artificial migration is a creative mass-migration caused by the Government  Machinery. The Government in the name of Industrial development providing  thousands hectors of land to different veteran companies on long-term lease basis.  So, the people have nothing to protest for the same and if at all they protest,  nobody is there to go through their grievance; rather they will have to struggle a lot  and suffer to an extreme extent. Hence, mass-migration is very common now a day.  WELFARE PROJECTS: All the Welfare projects and opportunities provided by the Government hardly reach  the poor people as the severe exploitation stands as a barrier. But, there is no  remedy for this adverse situation, because the person who will raise his voice  against this, will be finished.   EXPLOITATION IN GOVT. SECTOR:   Severe exploitation is faced by the poor Tribal people to get a Caste Certificate or  Residential Certificate or Income Certificate from the competent Authority for the  study or engagement of their children.  * Due to non-availability of ROR they are to pay heavy penalties both officially and  non-officially when they are having crops in their own land.  * Some of the poor Tribal people possessing one or two plots of land having no  ROR are not treated as the citizen of India and debarred from all opportunities  provided by the Government as BPL beneficiaries.  * In case of Health Care Service, the poor Tribal people are extremely neglected  because the costly drugs and injections instead of being provided to the  patients are being sold in the market.  Exploitation in Panchayat raj Administrative Offices is more prominent. They  are taking percentage from Indira Awas Houses, Old age pension and Widow  Pension etc. EXPLOITATION BY NGOS:  * In the name of Enhancing the socio-economic condition   of the people,  educating the people and to abolish the drinking habit of people N.G.Os. are  bringing heavy funds from different countries and misappropriating the same.  * Some NGOs in the name of “Promotion to Self-help Groups” are collecting  money directly from the people and swallowing the same.  * Now-a-days, watershed development for people is a very strategic way to bring  Government money in Lakhs and Crores and to enjoy with family and friends.  * A group of N.G.Os, in the name of providing employment collecting money @  Rs.5000/-to Rs.20,000/- from each and every individual and misappropriating in a  very clever way. UNIVERSAL TRAGEDY: Degradation in Social status.  Degradation in Financial status.  Degradation in Culture.  Increasing rate of Dependency. Loss of Human Rights. Loss of Political Rights.  Increasing rate of Migration.  Victims of Globalization Policy.